August 1, 2014

The Seesaw of Social and Non-Social Thinking in Leadership

According to Dr. Matthew Lieberman, our social and non-social brains have a see saw rather than a facilitative relationship with each other.

According to Dr. Matthew Lieberman, our social and non-social brains have a see saw rather than a facilitative relationship with each other.

You have a see saw in your brain. Thinking socially and thinking non-socially seems to use 2 different areas of the brain in a back and forth relationship, rather than one that acts in concert with each other. Dr. Matthew Lieberman discusses this concept in his new book Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect which I give a 5 out of 5 star recommendation.  This is a must read for anyone interested in applied (and accessible) brain science.

While reading the section on the neural see saw, I was struck by the notion that in Jungian psychological theory, made popular by the MBTI,  two different ways to make decisions are identified: thinking versus feeling. Moreover, it has been said that although we can use both thinking and feeling in our decision making, we tend to evaluate first with our preferred style, switch to the opposite style, then return to our preferred mode for the final rendering.  You can almost sense the shift when you use one style versus another when making a decision.  You can also sense that you can’t do them both at once.

In a recent TED Talk, Dr. Lieberman quoted John Zenger's research on effective leadership.

In a recent TED Talk, Dr. Lieberman quoted John Zenger’s research on effective leadership.

Dr. Lieberman also talks about the typical leadership culture in which non-social thinking seems to be valued over social thinking.- a results focus. Yet leadership researcher John Zenger has found that employees who consider their boss to be among the top 10%  of great leaders generally do not identify the results focused leader to be among that 10%.  In fact, only 14% of leaders with a results only focus were seen as great leaders. When leaders combined top-notch social skills with results oriented thinking, the percent of these individuals seen as great leaders skyrocketed to 72%!

So what does this mean for leadership?  Well,  it appears that we have one end of the see saw covered, given our cultural bias toward results.  However we can’t ignore the data that social skills matter.   John Zenger also found that 2/3 of employees would take a lesser salary in order to work for a great boss.  If leaders want to go from good to great, there has to be some emphasis on developing another part of the brain and learning to shift between the social and the non-social brain effectively.   There is some growing awareness around this reality however we will be going against the prevailing tide.   Focused attention and clear goals in this area is a must.

1.  Lieberman, Matthew D., Social:  Why Our Brains are Wired to Connect, Crown Publishing, 2013

2. Zenger, John H., The Extraordinary Leader:  Turning Good Managers into Great Leaders, America Media International, 2002


Waiting Until the Last Minute Has an Upside

hourglassSome of us do our best work when the sand in the hour glass is is almost gone.  Jungian typologists use the term pressure-prompted to describe the individual who prefers to pull it together at the last minute.  A new book describes this phenomenon in a way that makes perfect sense to a dedicated last-minute type like me. The authors of the book Scarcity: Why Having Too Little Means So Much calls this energy the “focus dividend” of scarcity.

Scarcity means we have too little of something, time or money for instance.   When we realize this, our brains tend to switch from big picture thinking to bottom up, mission critical thinking. The authors use the metaphor of packing a suitcase:  if you have a small suitcase, you throw out the extras and pack as many of the essentials as possible.  When there is a large suitcase, or a feeling of slack, then there is a tendency to add extras and maybe not prioritize as we should.

Apparently, this is a brain phenomenon so the idea of “fake deadlines” doesn’t seem to work because the brain doesn’t see this as true scarcity. Therefore, the brain doesn’t tunnel, or yield the focus dividend.  At least in my experience, fake deadlines don’t fool me for very long. It isn’t long before I realize a clock set 10 minutes ahead is a clock set 10 minutes ahead!

There is an upside to to the feeling of scarcity, or the sense that time is running out.  We do indeed become more focused.  It has been said that the last 10 minutes of a coaching conversation may in fact, be the most valuable. However is there a downside to this strategy? By the way, lest the planners of the world think they don’t experience the scarcity phenomenon, think again!

The downside is this.  Scarcity demands mental bandwidth.  So as we become very focused in the moment, we might be ignoring something more important in a broad sense.  Or we might use the “best available” strategy in the moment that has long term consequences for our overall time management.  An excellent example shared in the book describes the individual who takes the backroads to work, a much more time-consuming route, because he doesn’t take the time to renew his license tabs and he might get a ticket!

So what to do?  Self-awareness is the building block of strategy. . Perhaps ask yourself a few key questions:

1. How often does waiting until the last minute have consistent and significant consequences?

2. When does it help?  Remember there is a focus dividend!

3. What are you willing to change so that you can still enjoy the benefits of #2 but not suffer the perils of #1?

I would love to hear from other scarcity dividend junkies!  How do you manage those times when you must abandon the thrill of the last minute?




Understanding Emotions is Essential to Brain-Based Learning Strategies

golden-gate-bridge-84I just attended the 37th Learning and the Brain Conference, in San Francisco.  This my 3rd such conference, and as usual, the speakers did not disappoint.  The theme was using brain science to build social and emotional skills.

Brain-based learning, up until fairly recently, has focused on building cognitive skills.  Such skills include executive function skills such as focus, memory, reading and the like.  In both education and in the workplace, the role of emotions in optimizing learning and performance has not been studied as closely as these other aspects.

However during the conference, it was made clear that the brain is first and foremost a social organ.  The cortex is shaped by social interactions.  How much we feel that we are a part of something has much to say about how ready our brain is to learn.  I was struck by the number of speakers who had learning disabilities but who went on to complete advanced degrees from the some of the loftiest academic institutions:  Harvard and Stanford, for instance. Each of them credits significant figures or groups in their lives who made them feel connected, safe and empowered.

This is very critical.  I remember a teacher I had in 8th grade who didn’t like me, at all.  In fact, when my father went to a conference for my brother who was a year older, she wanted to talk about how there are good kids and bad kids and I was a bad one.  I had another teacher in high school who told me I wasn’t going to get into college, let alone the college of my choice.  Today, I would like to hit her over the head with both of my diplomas from the college of my choice!  And by the way, she was in no way an inspiration as if I had to prove something to her.  She was just awful.

Now things could have turned out rather badly if it weren’t for my father who wrote me a letter of support- basically saying that he loved me and wanted the best for me. He urged me to give my full effort because my world would be opened onto me if I did. I would have an interesting life.  And you know what?  He was right.  You can read that letter here .

Life is full of challenges- one of the speakers grew up in a 1 bedroom apartment in New York with several siblings. However it is clear that if we hope to meet these challenges, someone has to be in our corner, someone who will make us feel valued,connected and encouraged. Not someone who will blow sunshine at us but someone who will acknowledge our lives as they are and encourage us.  It is in this framework and this mindset that the best learning can occur.  Who in your life played this role for you?


The Lazy Gal’s Way to a Consistent Meditation Practice

The Insight Timer app is available in both a free and deluxe version

The Insight Timer app is available in both a free and deluxe version

Many of us are aware of the myriad of benefits associated with a regular meditation practice, among them improved stress management, clearer thinking, and increased capacity to focus.  I am well-aware of these benefits myself having attended an 8-week course at the University of Minnesota in Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction  and lectures by the mindfulness guru, Daniel Siegel.  I have extolled its virtues in presentations and recommended it to clients.  Nothing could be better for the brain.

Have practiced meditation consistently myself?  No.  Absolutely not.  My practice has been scattered at best usually because I think I am going to get around to it during the day but I seldom do.  What’s more is I am exactly the kind of person who would benefit from a regular meditation practice- high energy, often overextended, somewhat distractible.

Recently I rediscovered an app I’ve had on my phone for quite some time- the Insight Timer. Like Dorothy’s ruby slippers, I have had the answer to my inconsistent meditation practice all along.   Here are the advantages:

1. I can meditate anywhere.  At least in the winter, it means another 15-20 minutes in my warm bed.  I meditate right when I wake up.

2. The app automatically logs my time so I can see how long I have meditated and on what days.

3.  There is a an opportunity to journal a few thoughts afterward.  This is a delightful bonus because journaling was also something I intended to do but never did.  I can write down a few thoughts usually when I am at the peak of mental clarity.

4.  My iPhone is always with me so I have all I need to to meditate at any time- a chiming bell and a way to record my thoughts.

Any meditation is good.  Consistent meditation is better.  For the first time in my life, I actually know the difference.

Isn’t It a Diagnosis?

medical-chart-iconHave you ever taken an assessment tool, such as an emotional intelligence “test”  and were completely shocked, depressed, or mildly annoyed at the results? Or have you taken an assessment tool and had the opposite reaction? “Hey,  I’m pretty well- adjusted, intelligent or savvy!”  Or maybe you’ve taken a survey and the results don’t seem to quite fit.

When using such tools, a question that comes up frequently t is, “Isn’t this a diagnosis?”  In fact, sometimes this assumption forms the rationale to dismiss the value of assessment tools altogether which is a very big mistake.

Recently I was part a workshop team, certifying individuals in the use of a new assessment tool called the Intentional Leadership Audit that identifies leadership priorities, strengths and blind spots.   Along with the new assessment, there were connections made between leadership priorities, an individual’s psychological type (as identified by the MBTI ™ or other Jungian tool), and the EQi 2.0, emotional intelligence instrument.

In one of the case studies, it was revealed that the subject had a low score on the impulse control subscale of the EQi 2.0.   As a group, we then discussed the possible implications of low impulse control for a leader.  During the discussion,  one of the participants asked, “Isn’t this a diagnosis?  Isn’t this just what you are?”

It is common for people to assume  assessment tools have diagnostic implications, much the way medical tests point toward a condition that has to be treated.  Such is not he case.  Assessment tools, particularly self-reporting assessment tools, mainly serve the purpose of outlining what appears to be an individual’s mindset.  This can be affected by both inherent or default temperament as well as a myriad of other factors coming from personal experiences.  Hence, while much of our approach to living is fairly consistent, much of it is also malleable because our brain is adaptable and responds to the demands placed upon it.  We can all change and broadly,  this is how we do it:

1. Some sort of dampening down of the usual mind map has to take place, one of the most effective ways being through immersion .  So for example, if you were going to learn a new language, ideally you would have to eliminate as much use of the  native language as possible so the new language could build resilient neuro-connections in the brain.   The brain doesn’t like competing stimuli. That is why language immersion programs seem to work. Similarly, if you were relying on your sense of touch to get around in a dark room, you would immediately switch to your preferred mode of sight to get around if the light switch was turned on.  In other words,  the preferences that were present  first take precedence but if they are greatly attenuated, then new pathways can develop.  .

2. A deliberate or mindful monitoring of behavior can create a self-awareness and over time, a resilient change in the brain can take place. Choosing to consistently respond or act in a new way  can bring about these changes. Either through self-driven intent or the coaching  guidance, the brain can adapt to the demands placed upon it.

Assessment tools are a starting point to identify what appears to be the lay of the land.  After clarifying the results with a client, they can be immensely helpful in finding a starting point to structure goals and objectives.   Anything is possible as the brain is most definitely capable of significant change.  It is vitally important to know the fluid nature of assessment tools and the valuable information they can provide.


What a Scissors Attack Taught Me About Brain Energy

Death by scissors... almost.

Death by scissors… almost.

Imagine a man with arms like an albatross swinging a pair of scissors at you, then cornering you in a room with his wheelchair. That happened to me once when I was working with “Edward”, a brain injured man. And this was definitely my fault. For openers, I had not prepared the room properly before he arrived.  Too many scattered papers and folders on the table.  Also, too much task switching.  Do this, no do that!  And there were too many steps.   I had taxed his brain to the limit and he exploded in a rage.  Carefully I reached for the phone to dial hospital security…

Alright, this man had a significant brain injury and what I was asking him to do probably wouldn’t have set off that kind of reaction in most people. Yet, it has been said that one of the best ways to understand what the brain really does is to study a damaged brain. Prior to fMRI, PET scans and other imaging technology, that was all we had.   Even with today’s technology, there are still significant limitations about what we can conclude based on a neuroimaging. Edward had a damaged prefrontal cortex  after haven taken a bullet to the head and survived it.

In the years that I worked with brain injured clients, one of the most interesting and challenging parts of the job was management of the environment in order to maximize their brain power and reduce frustration.  Physically removing distractions, manipulating the number of steps it took to complete a task, task redirection, and providing external feedback about attention span had an almost magical effect on what they were able to accomplish as well as improving their mood.  All of these techniques tend to take the pressure off the brain because they are largely external manipulations in the environment.  The prefrontal cortex can take a mini-break.

Now  in my role as  coach, I can offer that you don’t have to be brain damaged to benefit from these techniques.  They work for everyone- it’s all about managing brain energy.

Here are 4 powerful adjustments you can make to maximize brain power:

1. Avoid Task Switching :  Task switching is not giving yourself enough time to “get on a roll” on any given task. Every time you do a task, your prefrontal cortex, the most energy-expending part of your brain, has to recruit the correct brain cells to do the task.  Each time you switch tasks, you deplete energy.  What’s more, too much task switching creates irritability.

2. Adjust the Number of Cognitive Steps:   In a previous blog,  Adding Cognitive Steps to Manage Distraction , I discussed the notion that you can use cognitive steps to either make something easier or more difficult to do.  If accessing something on the computer is one simple click away, you are more likely to give in to that distraction.  If it requires several more steps, you might not bother.

3. Manage Distractions:  Distractions can be managed either internally or externally.  Internal management requires additional brain energy, sometimes a considerable amount of energy.  Don’t you dare do that!  Is it easier to ignore the TV or turn it off?   Would you rather work to avert your attention from your phone or put it in another room?   I usually have a lot of fun with this particular challenge as I think of ridiculous or ingenious ways to remove distractions from my life.

4. Actively Build Attention Span:   You can do this through meditation.  Or you can do this by setting a timer that will help you gauge progress. Start with 10 minutes then work your way up.

As in all things you want to change, you have practice these enough so that they become part of your mindset and your approach to productivity.Merely reading about it isn’t sufficient. Or doing it occasionally.  The brain responds most of all to the dynamic tension of actually doing something.



Keeping Your Brain Razor Sharp

The brain and gut are intrinsically related.  A happy mind is a happy gut and a happy gut is a happy mind.

The brain and gut are intrinsically related. A happy mind is a happy gut and a happy gut is a happy mind.

My great aunt grew up on a diet of fatty meat, dumplings and potatoes. Vegetables were usually cucumbers doused in bacon grease. She smoked for 80 years and loved her scotch. When she was in her mid-90′s, she collapsed at a casino and was admitted to the hospital. After a few tests, she insisted that she be taken home or else she would call a cab. She had a dinner party on Friday night. She was released. On Friday, she went to the party, enjoyed herself as always, and died Saturday morning in her bed in the house she had lived in for decades.

Except for the exercise she got enjoying herself, she defied all the laws of what we now know as the standard guidelines of health:  Exercise, no smoking, moderate alcohol, and a diet of fruits, veggies, and lean meats. This aunt of mine was lucky and she probably had resilient genes. Maybe she also had less overall stress than the typical person has today.

Current research shows that small but measurable declines in brain function begin in our 20′s.  In the age 85+ population, 40% show signs of Alzheimer’s disease.   Anxiety is common in developed in countries and the lifetime risk for significant depression is 20%, whereas 100 years ago, it was 1%. It’s been suggested that stress, lack of sleep, obesity, lack of exercise contribute to declining brain health.

How do we keep our brain razor sharp?

Here are 5 tips:

1.  Exercise.  Regular exercise improves circulation, increases pulmonary capacity and lessens anxiety and depression.  What’s more, exercise produces BDNF (brain derived neurotropic factor) which creates new brain cells, particularly in the hippocampus, which is  critical to memory functions and spatial navigation.

2. Keep inflammation in check.  Inflammation can come from infections, injuries and poor dental health.  What has emerged lately is the role of excess weight, poor lifestyle, and lack of sleep in the onset of the inflammatory process.

3.  Reduce or eliminate sugar.  There is an emerging evidence that sugar is a significant cause of chronic inflammation. Seventy percent of our immune cells are in the digestive system.  Anything that irritates these cells, irritates the immune cells including those in the brain.

4.  Watch for food sensitivities such as gluten intolerance. They also disrupt the intestinal immune system, ultimately affecting inflammation in the brain.  If your digestive tract feels unwell after eating something, your brain probably isn’t happy about it either.

5. Supplement with omega 3 capsules or eat food rich in omega 3 such as salmon and flax.  Not only will they insulate the nerve cells with high quality fat, they also reduce inflammation.

The brain and belly are intrinsically connected.  Not only are they connected by immune cells, the vagus nerve directly connects the two organs.  Therefore, an additional benefit for eating well is that your “gut feelings” are likely to be more clearly interpreted by brain.  A happy brain is a happy belly and a happy belly is a happy brain. More on that next time!



Adding Cognitive Steps to Master Distraction

facebook_buy_nowA couple of weeks ago, I deleted the Facebook app from my cell phone. It’s not that I opposed Facebook.  I definitely use it. I am a social gal.  However, most of us agree that it can be a major distraction. What’s more, a distraction is even more powerful if succumbing to it is an easy thing to do.   For instance, online buying can be a real problem because purchasing is only a click or two away.  Website designers know that you stand a greater chance of following through on a purchase if the path to do so is clear and simple.

This can potentially paint a picture of us being slaves to distraction.  After all, temptation is everywhere.  However, we can use that knowledge and turn the tables on those distractions. How?  By making it more difficult to follow through on something.  I like to call it, “adding cognitive steps.”

For instance, when you use Facebook on your phone, it’s way too easy.  First, the phone is always with you.  Certainly you can make this more difficult by putting your phone in another room or in your purse.  However, once you get it in your hand, you can touch the app and you are signed right in. That’s only 2 cognitive steps to complete the task.  Now if you delete the app and  now have to sign into Google, that’s step 1. After that, you have to pick  the Facebook login, then put in your username, then your password, and then answer whether you want to “save this device” or not.  After that, you get a text that confirms you have signed in with another device that you will ultimately delete.   Getting onto Facebook now becomes a hassle involving at least 5 cognitive steps!  A delightful bonus is that you get at least 5 opportunities to say, “Quit wasting your time” and move onto something more productive.

In some ways, we know this intuitively already.  If you have to go to the store to buy potato chips rather than having them on hand, you are more likely to not eat the potato chips.   However, the world of point and click has made it deceptively simple to succumb to distraction.  Or temptation! What creates endless engagement, or worse, addiction,  is often masquerading as a convenience.   Plus it makes the prefrontal cortex of the brain work extra hard to ward off the temptation.  How exhausting!

Of course, Facebook is only an example. You can use this strategy for any temptation you want to master.  I used to tape myself into my chair to finish papers in college.  Do you know how difficult it is to move around with a chair taped to your backside?  Or to free yourself from the tape then retape yourself back to the chair?   You want to get something done?  Resist an impulse? Make it more difficult to do the opposite, especially if it’s enticing you with convenience.




Emotion: Who Needs to Know About it Anyway?

What is your current state of mind?

What is your current state of mind?

Emotions are a tricky subject for me.  For much of my life, I have believed what many people have thought about the nature of emotion: that emotions require too much time, they lead to loss of control, and only a restricted set of emotions are acceptable.  In addition, who among us was taught how to to accurately define our own emotional state?  Note the emphasis.  Very often someone else is telling us how we currently feel, should feel, or not feel.  Think about it for a moment.

I had a couple of interesting experiences recently that brought home the degree to which I need to develop this area of my psyche.  First, I became certified in the EQi 2.0. As part  of the certification process, I had to take an emotional intelligence test. It consists of 15  subscales that measure areas such as optimism, flexibility and stress tolerance which were very high scores for me.  Definitely on the lower side were my scores for emotional awareness and emotional expression.  In fact, they were as low as 37 points below my top scores.  That’s quite a gap in EQi-speak!

Meanwhile, I attended a presentation on emotional awareness at a recent ICF conference.  A list of 224 adjectives, describing various emotions, both pleasant and unpleasant was given out.   For the next week, I experimented with trying to accurately describe what I was feeling when I felt a stirring in my body or my gut (often the first sign that an emotion is happening).   I could barely do it!  Certainly many of us can describe vague or broadly felt emotions like happy, angry or sad.  But it’s this nuanced description of how one is feeling that isn’t so easy. Try it sometime.  I can send you the list!

Yet it is been shown that suppressing emotion, the physical feeling actually leads to more of the emotion we are trying to quell.  Moreover on FMRi studies, the limbic system, the place in the brain where much of our emotional is wired,  seems to be further aroused the more we try to wrestle it down.  So why do we do it?  My first guess is that it was conditioned out of us early on in our lives.

Nevertheless, there is much benefit to becoming better at accurately describing our emotional state.   Name it to tame it is one way we can do this and it has indeed been shown on fMRI that the limbic system will calm down when we name how we are feeling.  However, I would like to offer up this reason:  When we accurately define an emotion, we open a door for a solution or a remedy.

For instance, if we are confused or uncertain, we can seek clarity.  If we are feeling vulnerable, we can seek safety. If we feel overwhelmed, we can ask for help or lighten our schedule.  However, if we experience all of these as the same state- let’s say “upset”, then our doorway out is not very clear.

You can do a similar exercise with positive emotions.  Happy is good but grateful connects an experience with gratitude.  Do you need to thank someone? If you feel adventurous, seek an adventure.

On a final note, for those of us who prefer a different word rather than “emotion”, I like to use “state of mind.” Yes…that makes me feel comfortably in tune with myself indeed.


-Coaches can ask questions that leverage the state of emotional awareness to set goals and problem solve.
-emotional awareness can also be seen as “knowing one’s current mindset.”

What Really Influences Our Behavior?

What really influences our behavior?   Is it the brain as described by the newest findings in brain science? Is it our personality?  Our upbringing? As a coach, I use certain lenses to help individuals uncover personal potential.  Therefore,  it’s tempting to zero in on those aspects to which I am most familiar: personality type (MBTI), emotional intelligence, and the latest in brain science.   However, I have to mindful of all of the factors that might lead to a particular behavior or mindset.

For instance, brain science is currently very popular.  As an individual who worked with brain injury for 25 years prior to starting a coaching practice, I am thrilled with all of the progress that is being made in the field, particularly neuro-imaging.   However, with all of the interest and energy comes the concomitant hype.  Here is where we have to be careful not to attribute any one factor to explain behavior without considering other possible factors.  The truth is, most of our thoughts and acts are a result of what author of A Skeptic’s Guide to the Mind by Richard A. Burton calls “a weighing of all inputs.”

In the diagram below, there are multiple factors that influence behavior as seen in the left hand column.  These factors are weighed and the most relevant ones lead to mental sensations, thoughts and actions at any given moment.   If an individual does “X”, “a”, “b” and “c” may have led to that particular action so it’s important to consider all of these.

Adapted from A Skeptic's Guide to the Mind by Robert A. Burton

Adapted from A Skeptic’s Guide to the Mind by Robert A. Burton

Meanwhile, what does this mean for people trying to understand one another?   Be careful about getting too narrow in your thinking.  In MBTI personality-speak, we like to say, “You are more than just your personality type.”  Likewise, as we learn about brain science and new findings are revealed, we have to be careful to say, (for instance) “he is behaving a certain way because he has an overactive amygdala at the moment.”

I would also add that the more you can become aware about the multiple factors that may be influencing your own thoughts and actions at a given moment, the more likely you are to be able to mindfully weigh the inputs for your own best possible outcome.  So there is substantial upside to being open to as many lenses as possible to explain why we do what we do, and it’s seldom just one.